AbstractSomewhat more than a century ago, in 1848, Karl Marx and Frederick Engels wrote the Communist Manifesto, in which this sentence appeared: "A spectre is haunting Europe-the spectre of Communism." The "spectre" of 1848 became a fullblown political movement after the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. Today it takes its place side by side with industrialization, war, and nationalism as one of four potent forces that are undermining capitalist imperialism and promoting the building of socialism.
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