The bizarre ideological inversions which characterize the modes of expression of contemporary East European political movements serve to render invisible to the casual observer the real social character of these movements. For this reason alone most Western analyses of the recent events in Poland have conformed broadly to one of two stereotypes. First, there is the conventional wisdom of the right according to which the two primary forces in the present surge of revolt are nationalism and religion. Second, there is the semi-apologetic view favored by Social Democrats and Eurocommunists which sees the upheaval as a struggle for the "democratization of socialism." Both analyses of course contain a germ of truth; but whereas from the first standpoint it is impossible (and perhaps undesirable) to see the real social forces which express themselves faute de mieux in the traditional language of reaction, the second standpoint begs the most fundamental question about the character of the existing regimes of Eastern Europe.
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